Vermont Copper Mines Superfund

PAL was retained by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in 2000 to assist the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency with their obligations under Section 106 of the National Historic Preservation Act for cleanup actions at three historic copper mine sites in Orange County, VT.

The 20-mile-long Orange County “Copper Belt” mining district hosts the Elizabeth Mine, South Strafford; the Ely Mine, Vershire; and the Pike Hill Mine, Corinth. These mines made significant contributions to 19th and  20th century U.S. copper mining and smelting and were determined eligible for listing in the National Register of Historic Places. Runoff from the mines affects water quality in the Connecticut River.


  • PAL conducted a wide variety of cultural resource services for the Vermont Copper Belt mines, including extensive research, fieldwork and archaeological survey at all three sites.
  • Work at the Elizabeth Mine included development of a Memorandum of Agreement for cultural resources, architectural and landscape documentation, and archaeological monitoring and data recovery.
  • These projects are an example of PAL’s capabilities for large, complex, industrial archaeological sites, requiring an interdisciplinary approach, complex planning, and HAZMAT archaeology.


PAL’s products were used to facilitate mitigation consultation for remediation impacts to cultural resources and to inform cleanup decisions and reclamation engineering.

Client Name: 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers/U.S. Environmental Protection Agency
Project Name: 
Vermont Copper Mines Superfund
Project Date: 
2000 to 2009
Project Location: 
Orange County, Vermont